Dandruff Causes and treatment

Although dandruff seems to be a simple hair problem, it is a problem that affects one’s self-confidence. Even if it is not related to cleanliness, it makes the person’s hair look dirty or abandoned. Itchy dandruff also causes discomfort to people. In one study, it is said that dandruff may cause psychological problems, although it does not cause a medical problem.


What is Dandruff?

Dandruff is a skin problem that can be seen in both men and women, causing white and gray skin scales to appear on the scalp or the hair. Dandruff is seen in one out of every two people. Dandruff usually does not indicate a serious problem and does not spread from person to person. However, it is an aesthetically challenging situation.

Dandruff is seen as more common in men than in women. The reason for this is not known precisely, but because the hair covering the scalp of women is more frequent, dandruff may be less observed. Another possible reason is stated as; women can see the benefits of anti-dandruff products because they carefully select the products when they use for hair care. Therefore treatment success is higher in women than in men. 


The skin has a system that constantly renews itself. As new cells form on the underside of the skin, dead cells are pushed to the upper surface, i.e., in the direction of air contact. During this natural process, dead skin cells, which are spilled with water while washing, are not visible. But when this cycle is broken and accelerated for any reason, dead skin cells begin to accumulate in the hair follicles and dandruff forms.

Dandruff can occur due to many skin conditions. The treatment of dandruff should be supported primarily by the treatment of the underlying disease. Diseases that may cause dandruff formation can be listed as follows.

  • Seborrheic dermatitis:  It is a common skin disease that may cause scaly, itchy skin, and reddening of the skin, face, and some parts of the body. It is a disease of unknown origin, in which many factors play a role. These factors include stress, ‌androgens, depression, fatigue, ‌vascular disorders that may be microangiopathic, changes in atmosphere such as pressure changes, seasons, clothing, feeding patterns, and food allergies, ‌autoimmunity.
  • Allergic contact ‌‌ (contact) ‌‌dermatitis:  Skin reactions to products used in the scalp, such as hair dye, hairspray, hair gel, or foam. This is due to contact if the person is dandruff their hair when they use only one product and if the dandruff is cut off when they stop using this product.
  • Psoriasis:  A skin disease that causes red, rind spots on the skin covered with silver scales.


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How to Get Rid of Dandruff

The primary treatment for dandruff is anti-dandruff shampoo. Dandruff shampoos are containing various ingredients that can be purchased from supermarkets or dermo-cosmetics departments of pharmacies.

Anti-dandruff Shampoos containing one of the following ingredients are generally suitable for dandruff.

  • Zinc pyrite
  • Salicylic acid
  • Selenium sulfide
  • ketoconazole
  • Coal Tar

Before using dandruff shampoos, the instructions for use should be read carefully, and you should know how to apply them. Leave the shampoo on the hair for at least five minutes before rinsing will be beneficial in terms of showing the effect of the substances more intensely. In shampoos, it is necessary to try for a month to see if dandruff is healing in treatment. In some cases, shampoo can be used less frequently when symptoms have improved, but dandruff may return when complete use is stopped.


When should you consult a doctor for dandruff?

Dandruff is often not consulted by physicians, but a dermatologist should be consulted in the following cases.

  • If you have tried any dandruff shampoo for a month, but you have not observed an improvement in your dandruff,
  • If your scalp itches,
  • If your scalp is swollen or red,
  • If you have a weakened immune system with dandruff, for example; If you are undergoing chemotherapy, if you are HIV-positive, or if you are taking medication that suppresses your immune system, you should consult a doctor.

Your doctor will examine your scalp to understand why dandruff is produced and prescribe medication, lotion, and shampoo accordingly.



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